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5th Annual congress on Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Surgery, will be organized around the theme “Theme: Gateway for Developmental Milestones in Pediatrics and Neurology”

Neuropaediatrics 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Neuropaediatrics 2020

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Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. More than 15,000 Pediatric recipients of heart, kidney, or liver transplants have been reported since 1988. Longer survival rates due to advances and innovations in technical and postoperative management have improved the recipients’ quality of life dramatically, resulting in the greater involvement of primary care physicians in their care. Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Some organs, like the brain, cannot be transplanted. Tissues include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts), cornea, skin, heart valves, nerves, and veins. Worldwide, the kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs, followed by the liver and then the heart.  Cornea and musculoskeletal grafts are the most commonly transplanted tissues; these outnumber organ transplants by more than tenfold.

 

Pediatric neurogenetic disorders are diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles that are caused by changes in genes or chromosomes. There are hundreds of neurogenetic disorders that may present in very different ways. They may cause problems from birth or only become evident in later childhood. They include malformations of the brain, neurodevelopmental disorders, genetic syndromes as well as problems such as seizures, loss of muscle tone, balance, and learning.

 

Differently from the adult patients, in Pediatric age it is most difficult task involved and treat efficaciously the pain and often this symptom is undertreated or not treated. In children, selection of appropriate pain assessment tools should consider age, cognitive level and the presence of eventual disability, type of pain and the situation in which it is occurring. Improved understanding of developmental neurobiology and paediatric analgesic drugs pharmacokinetics should facilitate a better management of childhood pain.

 

Behavioural disorders are the most common reasons that parents are told to take their kids for mental health assessments and treatment. Behavioural disorders are also common in adults. Unlike other types of health issues, a behavioural disorder will have mostly emotional symptoms, with physical symptoms such as a fever, rash, or a headache being absent. However, generally, folks littered with an activity disorder can develop an abuse downside that may show physical symptoms like burnt fingertips, bloodshot eyes.

Developmental disorders comprise a bunch of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in numerous areas. These behaviour problems will place vital stress on children, parents, and families, and make substantial barriers to participation in social and community activities.

 

Neuro-Ophthalmology is a specialty that concentrates on the neurological problems related to the eye. Like we tend to all apprehend, the human eye captures the visuals it sees and transmits to the brain to be resolved as pictures. There are several parts of the brain that are involved with precise control of eye movements. Difficulty within these regions often produces misalignment of the eyes with resultant double vision.

Current proof indicates that inveterately disrupted sleep in children and adolescents will result in issues in psychological feature functioning. Behavioural interventions for Pediatric sleep problems. Children who have sleep disorders could usually exhibit symptoms (inattentiveness, over-activity, restlessness) similar to ADHD.

 

Pediatric Nursing is the medical care of neonates and children up to adolescence, usually in an inpatient hospital or day-clinic. The Pediatric nursing and Neuro-critical Care Program could be a multi-dimensional effort to boost the neurological outcomes of children with vital illnesses that includes care, research, education and advocacy. The care of pediatrics within the program is multi-disciplinary endeavour from a variety of faculty and staff from Critical Care Medicine, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, Trauma Surgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Nursing, Respiratory Therapy and from different Departments.

 

Pediatric psychology encompasses a wide variety of areas. These areas include developmental, contextual, and psychosocial factors that can contribute to Pediatric psychological and physical issues. It additionally includes the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of Pediatric medical conditions, prevention of Pediatric medical conditions (physical and psychological), educating the general population on Pediatric health, promoting health-related behaviours, advocating for child and family public policies, and improving Pediatric healthcare delivery services.

Cerebral disorders commonly cause psychiatric symptoms. Almost all brain disorders may cause psychiatric symptoms.

 

Movement disorders may result from many varieties of brain injury, such as head trauma, infection, inflammation, metabolic disturbances, toxins or unintended adverse effects of medications. They will even be a proof of different, underlying diseases or conditions, together with genetic disorders.

The brain structures that are affected are thought to incorporate the basal ganglia, the motor parts of the cortex, the thalamus, the cerebellum and/or brainstem. All these structures are thought to act together in a network, thus injury to only one may be enough to cause a movement disorder.

 

Children differ from adults in several aspects of pharmacotherapy, together with capabilities for drug administration, medicine-related toxicity, and taste preferences. It is essential that Pediatric medicines are developed to best suit a child’s age, size, physiologic condition, and treatment needs. To ensure adequate treatment of all children, completely different routes of administration, dosage forms, and strengths may be needed. Clinicians need population-specific, evidence-based clinical tools to produce safe and effective drug therapy support for neonatal and Pediatric patients. These clinical tools should be up-to-date, evidence-based drug dosing information, as well as functionality that provide warnings for inappropriately entered dosage values.

 

Neurochemistry is the specific study of neurochemicals including neurotransmitters and other molecules (such as psychopharmaceuticals) that influence the function of neurons. This field closely examines how these neurochemicals influence the network of neural operation. It is believed that variations in brain chemistry may explain a variety of behavioural disorders and phenomena. Some chemical compounds appear to have long-term effects. Nicotine, for example, is heavily involved with neurotransmitter dopamine. These external influences on brain chemistry can cause behavioural changes or alterations in the way the brain functions.

Neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system develops, its structure, and what it does. Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions. Not only is neuroscience concerned with the normal functioning of the nervous system, but also what happens to the nervous system when people have neurological, psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

 

Researchers and physicians use a wide variety of diagnostic imaging techniques and chemical, metabolic analyses to detect, and treat neurological disease.  Some procedures are performed in specialized settings, conducted to see the presence of a particular disorder or abnormality.  Several tests that were antecedently conducted in a hospital are currently performed in a physician’s office or at an outpatient testing facility, with little if any risk to the patient.

 

Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), including tumors of the brain and spinal cord, are the most common solid tumors in pediatrics. These tumors are heterogeneous, there are a number of different sort of tumors and different biologic behaviour. Pediatric CNS tumors differ from adult CNS tumors in histology, biology, pathophysiology, and location. Overall survival for pediatrics with tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) has step by step improved, and 5-year survival currently approaches by 70%.

 

Neuromuscular diseases have an effect on the lower motor neurons of the nervous system, which may include the muscles, nerves, or the junction between muscles and nerves (known as a neuromuscular junction). There are many different of Pediatric neuromuscular disease types. These may include inherited neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and muscular dystrophies such as Duchene, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and congenital myopathies.

 

Autoimmune disorders are diseases in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy tissue. These disorders can affect many different parts of the body.Autoimmune disorders that affect their central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). These disorders can affect a child’s ability to eat, walk, talk, think or move normally.

 

Neuroimaging refers to techniques that produce images of the brain without requiring surgery, incision of the skin, or any direct contact with the inside of the body. Because these technologies enable non-invasive visualization of the structure and functionality of the brain, neuroimaging has become a powerful tool for both research and medical diagnosis. Common methods include positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), and near-infrared spectroscopic imaging (NIRSI). PET, fMRI, and NIRSI can measure localized changes in cerebral blood flow related to neural activity.

 

Drug metabolism in children may differ from adults and adverse events may occur that are not predictable from the adult experience. Clinical trials of safety and efficacy are needed both for new treatments and those that may already be in use but have not been tested in infants and children.

 

Surgery is one of the parts of medication that manages the prescription of sicknesses and different issue by instrumental and manual methods. Surgery incorporates the administration of intense wounds and ailments as isolated from incessant, bit by bit propelling infections, beside when patients with the last sort of malady must be worked upon. There are numerous motivations to have Surgery. A couple of tasks can ease or thwart the agony. Others can lessen an indication of an issue or improve some body work. A couple of Surgery is done to find an issue. The various kinds of Surgery are; general medical procedure, plastic medical procedure, orthopedic medical procedure, obstetrics and gynecology, neurosurgery, thoracic medical procedure, colon and rectal medical procedure. 

 

Neurosurgical issues seen by Pediatric neurosurgeons are quite completely different from those ordinarily seen by general neurosurgeons. Because Pediatric neurosurgical issues often are present for life, children with nervous system problems frequently require close, on-going follow-up from childhood — sometimes as early as the newborn period — through the teenage years.

Neurosurgery is one in all the newer surgical disciplines to develop, originally gaining recognition in the early 1900s. However, it's currently one in all the foremost leading-edge medical disciplines within the world of science and drugs and involves the utilization of a number of the foremost advanced technologies presently offered.

 

Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that needs surgery. The surgery is needed for the child's wellbeing. Congenital heart diseases are currently treated in the pediatric age. However, a conspicuous number of patients require treatment in the adult age. The scope of pediatric cardiology practice is extensive. Pediatric Cardiologists evaluate and care for fetuses, neonates, infants, children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. Special areas of clinical and academic interest include Intensive Cardiac Care, Cardiac Catheterization and Intervention, Electrophysiology, Imaging, Fetal Cardiology, Exercise Physiology, Preventive Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation, and Pulmonary Hypertension. Cardiology is practiced in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

 

Childhood cancer makes up less than 1% of all cancers in the population diagnosed each year. Cancer in children can occur anywhere in the body, including the blood and lymph node system, brain and spinal cord (central nervous system; CNS), kidneys, and other organs and tissues. There is an increasing amount of research regarding cancer in children diagnosed after the age of 14. As these children are starting to enter young adulthood, they may have unique medical, social, and emotional needs that are different from younger children with cancer. They are part of a group often called adolescents and young adults.

 

A child's musculoskeletal problems are different from those of an adult. Because children are still growing, the body's response to injuries, infections, and deformities may be quite different than what would be seen in a full-grown person. Children with complex Pediatric problems are best managed by a medical-surgical team approach. Pediatric orthopaedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage children's musculoskeletal problems, such as:

  • Limb and spine deformities noted at birth or later in life (clubfoot, scoliosis, limb length differences)
  • Gait abnormalities (limping)
  • Broken bones
  • Bone or joint infections and tumors

The pathophysiologic manifestations of many of these disorders differ from analogous adult problems because of the added dimension of growth. The physician's relationship with the Pediatric patient generally occurs in the context of a protective family environment, in contrast to the more independent relationship the physician may form with an adult.

 

Pediatric urology is a urologic subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists provide care for both boys and girls ranging from birth to early adult age. A Pediatric urologist is a surgeon trained to correct or improve congenital anomalies (birth defects) of the kidneys, bladder, ureters, or genitalia. However, many of the problems seen in a Pediatric Urology clinic are treated without surgery. These might include urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, vesicoureteral reflux, among many others.

 

Obesity is not exclusive to adults. Each day, more and more children are finding themselves at risk for overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity often accompanies many of the obesity-related conditions adults affected by obesity often experience, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and more. Recent data shows that up to 80 percent of children affected by obesity will continue to be affected by obesity in adulthood. Obesity impacts children in a variety of ways. First and foremost, a child’s health is impacted as they have now opened themselves up to a wide variety of health issues – issues that most of us didn’t experience until middle-age. In addition to health implications, there’s also one other area that children face which can be very serious – weight bias and bullying.

 

Pediatric Plastic Surgery is the specialized subspecialty of Plastic Surgery that encompasses both the cosmetic and reconstructive needs of children from birth until young adulthood. Clinical issues generally involve collectively congenital and acquired defects involving the face, ear, jaw, skull, chest, and upper and lower extremities. Some examples involve cleft lip/palate, webbed fingers, and birthmarks. Due to the unique nature of the issues involved in caring for a child, many of the challenges are managed through a multi-disciplinary team approach. It is always important to stress that children should not be managed as “small” adults. Many plastic surgeons who perform Pediatric plastic surgery procedures receive additional training beyond the standard plastic and reconstructive residency training.